Autism is a neurological disorder that causes problems with the communication and behavior of the patients. As it has a very wide range of symptoms, autism needs to be classified as type and criteria. There are 5 groups of type of autism based on autism spectrum disorder that you can learn from the explanation below.
Table of Contents
- 5 Type of Autism Spectrum Disorder
- Criteria of Autism According to DSM-5
- Screening and Diagnosis Autism
- What Causes Autism Spectrum Disorder?
- What is The Difference Between SPD and Autism?
- What is High Functioning Autism?
- What is DRA in Autism?
- Is DCD a Form of autism?
- How to Calm Autism Child?
- How To Tell if Your Child has Autism?
- Is Autism a Developmental Disorder?
5 Type of Autism Spectrum Disorder
A specific criterion of autism is a result of a definite diagnosis. Doctors who do the diagnosis process will focus on the behavior and development of the child. As it has been mentioned before, there are 5 type of autism spectrum disorder.
A child with autism will fall under specific type if his/ her conditions fall under the range of a specific classification below.
PDD autism (pervasive development disorder)
The first type of autism are Pervasive Development Disorder. This type of autism cause children to have developmental delays. They may talk and walk later than another child. More than that, children may also have difficulties in social skills.
But besides those two delays, children with PDD autism did not have any severe symptoms. This is why PDD autism is considered a mild form of autism and children can easily cope with their challenges in life.
The next type of ASD autism is CAD autism. CAD is the abbreviation of Classic Autistic Disorder. Children with CAD autism has classic signs of autism, just like its name. They have difficulty understanding and communicate with others, avoiding eye contact, and super sensitive to sound.
Children with this syndrome also have no interest to engage with the outside world. You can diagnose all symptoms of CAD autism in children younger than 3 years old.
A child with autism has no symptoms until 2 years old falls to this category. It is called CDD autism or Childhood Disintegrative Disorder. From 0 to 2 years old, they seem perfectly fine but after that, they lose all their communication and social skills.
It can be confusing for parents, as they have not seen any development delays before. But so suddenly, their children stop talking and interacting then doctors said that their children have CDD autism.
This type of autism causes the same symptoms as any other form of autism. They have delayed speech, avoid eye contact, and do repetitive movements. But Rett Syndrome only affects girls.
The symptoms can be found from 6 months old and the severity of them can increase as the child gets older. You need to be aware of different symptoms that may happen like difficulty breathing and grinding teeth.
Children with autism that show an obsessive interest in one or two specific objects fall into this type of autism. They have Asperger’s Syndrome. Sometimes, they can also be triggered because of a specific object.
They are often misdiagnosed as a mental disorder, such as Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder or Attention Deficit Disorder. But most children with this type of autism score high on intelligence tests. They may have genius IQ scores.
Criteria of Autism According to DSM-5
In 2013, the American Psychiatric Association released a new edition of a guide to diagnosing mental disorders. This guide is called DSM-5 or the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.
Even though autism is not a mental disorder, you can find the diagnostic guide of autism in this book. Here are the diagnostic criteria of autism based on the book:
- Deficits in social communication and interaction
- Repetitive motor movements
- Symptoms present in early life
- Symptoms cause impairment in social occupational
- Cannot be explained by intellectual disability
Screening and Diagnosis Autism
It is considered difficult to diagnose autism. There is no medical test that can be done that can show the type of autism result. So how doctors can diagnose children with autism?
Doctors will study the development chart of the children. They will look at all the history and noted some behaviors to make a diagnosis. Autism can be detected as soon as possible. Usually, it can be diagnosed before 2 years old. The process of monitoring and screening children’s developmental is crucial to make the right diagnosis.
Developmental Monitoring and Screening
The process of developmental monitoring is done by observing how a child grows. Child growing will show some changes from time to time. Doctors have developmental milestones that should meet by each child in the development process.
As parents, you also need to have a checklist of milestones. It can help you monitor how your child grows. Besides that, doctors will do developmental screening too. In this process, doctors will give a brief test to your child or you as parents.
If the result of the test is not meeting the requirement normal development standard, doctors may do a developmental evaluation. This is the last process before finally, the diagnosis of your child type of autism comes out.
EEG Diagnose for Autism
Electroencephalogram or EEG is a method that can be used to diagnose autism. This method is tracing the brain to identify brain activity related to autism. As autism is a neurological disorder, the result of EEG could offer to display the explanation.
This method is widely used now to be the first signal to diagnose whether a child has autism syndrome or not. If the result of this brain trace matches with the type of autism, then doctors need to do monitoring and screening too before diagnosing it.
What Causes Autism Spectrum Disorder?
Even the most recent research findings cannot explain the exact causes of autism spectrum disorder. But there are likely many causes that can higher the risk factor of a child to have autism. Follow the list below to be aware of it!
- Genes more likely the cause of strange brain development that developed into autism.
- Individuals born with fragile X syndrome more likely to have a greater chance of having autism.
- Pregnant moms who take drugs such as valproic acid and thalidomide, even with a prescription, have been linked to having a higher risk to born children with autism.
- Children born to older parents can have a higher risk of autism too.
- Children who have a sibling with autism are more likely to have a higher risk of autism too.
Read More at : 5 Facts Causes of Autism
What is The Difference Between SPD and Autism?
SPD or sensory processing disorder is not an official diagnosis of autism. It is not included in the recent update of autism diagnosis in DSM-5. But, there are many children with autism who has SPD also. So they are called SPD autism.
Children with SPD autism have hypersensitive senses to what they hear, see, or feel. But because of that, most of them have impressive abilities. For example, most of them have a very good memory that allows remembering the content of a long article.
What is High Functioning Autism?
High functioning autism is not a medical term. High functioning autism is commonly used by people to talk about autism spectrum disorder. They are called high-functioning autism because they have no intellectual disability. Intelligence Quotient (IQ) of children with HFA autism is greater than 70.
Generally, symptoms of children with HFA autism are similar to Asperger’s Syndrome. Their symptoms are exhibit before the age of three years, but children with HFA autism have a higher IQ score than children with Asperger’s syndrome.
What is DRA in Autism?
DRA is Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior that are often used for autism treatment. This procedure can decrease the targeted unwanted behaviors that children with autism may have.
Children with autism will get reinforcement for their wanted behaviors. This way, the wanted behaviors will replace the unwanted ones. It is indeed really helpful for parents of children with autism.
Is DCD a Form of autism?
Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are developmental disorders with different diagnostic criteria. Currently, ASD is diagnosed based on two main symptoms: restricted interests and repetitive behaviors ,and difficulty with social interaction/communication
DCD on the other hand, the symptoms that appear are characterized by difficulty in performing motor skills according to age levels. DCD may occur along with autism. So children with autism who also have DCD are characterized by their difficulties in performing motoric skills.
Most of them bad at body coordination and balance. This symptom can affect their daily living and then disturb other motoric skills development too.
How to Calm Autism Child?
An autistic child can have a meltdown no matter what type of autism. In this situation, he/ she will scream so loud and hit or throw any object so suddenly. This can feel overwhelming for parents, caretakers, or teachers of an autistic child. On top of that, if a meltdown happens in public, some people may stare at their parents and judging them.
As parents, caretakers, or teachers of an autistic child, you need to know how to calm it. These are several tips on how to calm autism child you can choose:
- Always bring sensory toolkit
Autism children in a meltdown state sometimes can be calm using sensory tools. So prepare sunglasses, headphones, and other tools to bring, if you go out with autism child. As one of the type of autism child is hypersensitive to senses, those tools are helpful to calm him/ her down.
- Don’t interact with bystanders!
In a public situation, your meltdown child will surely attract many bystanders. But you don’t have to interact with them. You are not obliged to explain what happens to your child. Just focus on how to calm him/ her. Interact with bystanders will waste your time to calm your child.
- Don’t punish!
Don’t ever punish an autistic child because they can’t control their meltdowns. Punishment will not calm him/ her down, instead will make it louder. You just need to give them space. Let the meltdown calm itself down.
- Let them know that they are safe and loved
If you just can’t help leaving your child by him/ herself to calm down, you can do something to let them know that they are safe and loved. For example, you can hug them and whispering continuously that you love them and they are safe with you.
- Teach them coping strategies
There are many coping strategies you can teach your autistic child. But this may useful for children with autism that already have good results from treatments. For example, you can teach them if they can’t control their feeling, they need to take a deep breath. Surely, they can learn how to calm on their own by doing this.
How To Tell if Your Child has Autism?
A child who has autism can be diagnosed by 3 main symptoms. These 3 main symptoms are diagnosed in any type of autism. So to tell if your child has autism or not, just check whether they have these 3 main symptoms.
- Children with autism lack of understanding social cues. This is what makes them have delayed speech too. In the end, the language skills of the child are not sufficient. Most of them end up always screaming and crying to communicate, even after reaching the age where most children already able to talk.
- Another symptom that every child with autism has is the avoidance of eye contact. They may already able to talk, but when they talk to others they avoid eye contact. This is the sign that your child has social withdrawal and a lack of social interaction.
- The next sign to tell if your child has autism is his/ her repetitive movements. For example, autism child always flapping his/ her hands or banging head. In a certain type of autism, they may also show repetitive behavior like obsessiveness to a certain object.
Is Autism a Developmental Disorder?
Autism is a developmental disorder caused by a neurological disorder. So they are both the causes of autism in individuals. An individual who has autism showcase problems in communication and social skills. Until now, there is no cure for autism. It lasts throughout a person’s life and can only be reduced based on the type of autism it has.
How to deal with an autism child?
Dealing with autism child need consistency. You have to be consistent in every situation. You should not change any schedule or routine you already made for children with autism. If you keep changing the schedule or routine, children with autism will never learn how to adapt to it.
Children with autism also need extra attention in the sensory field, especially for a certain type of autism. Continuous motivation will surely help them to be attentive to the learning process. So, do not give up and love your child unconditionally!